R. Buckminster Fuller & Shoji Sadao. Cloud Nine, Project for Floating Cloud Structures. 1960.

Fuller’s exploration of housing solutions that extended above the earth’s surface are represented in this image in which spherical clouds house floating cities. He argued that geodesic structures increase in strength as they grow in scale and therefore have no practical limitations on their size. He calculated that when sunlight heats the air inside a geodesic sphere with a diameter of half-mile or more, the combined weight of the interior air and the sphere’s physical structure would be lighter than the atmosphere, allowing the sphere to rise in the air. Each sphere could be designated to hover at a particular altitude and house several thousand passengers.

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